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Government of India

Sanitation: Keystone of Public Health

K V Venkatasubramanian* i201752701.jpg

Safe water, adequate sanitation and personal hygiene are indispensable for human health and progress. Lack of these can seriously impact psychological and social development of communities. The worst sufferers are women and children.

Some 300 million women and girls, mainly from underprivileged sections of society, defecate in the open, by one estimate. Deprivation of sanitation and toilet facilities imposes immense stress on women, who are forced to relieve themselves under cover of darkness. This poses threat to their safety and even life. Often, they are forced to reduce their food and water intake to minimize the need to exit home to use toilets.

Nearly 23 per cent of adolescent girls drop out of school for want and need of access to functional toilets, clean water and proper sanitation. These also affect children’s learning, safety and quality of their lives.

Unsafe water, poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitation contribute to high incidences of diarrhoeal diseases, and under-five mortality caused by pneumonia, neonatal disorders and undernutrition, according to UNICEF. Contamination causes infection. Absence of sanitation leads to contamination and results in infection. This contamination is a major cause of diarrhoea and leads to other major diseases such as jaundice, cholera, schistosomiasis (snail fever, caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes) and trachoma (a chronic contagious bacterial infection of the eye). Diarrhoeal diseases are also responsible for stunting in children (low height-for-age).

Poor sanitation and its resultant diseases have a telling effect on everyone and a country as a whole. It imposes heavy burden on human, economic and environmental health. Hence, a clean nation alone can make sustained progress.

Realising the magnitude of this problem, Prime Minister Narendra Modi gave a clarion call to end open defecation by providing clean toilets and improving sanitation. Nearly three years ago, he launched the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) on October 2, 2014.


The SBM offers a promising solution to address the issues of sanitation and water, and aims to achieve universal sanitation coverage and make India open defecation free by 2019, the 150th birthday of Mahatma Gandhi.logo2

The mission’s objectives are also to eradicate manual scavenging, effect behavioural change in healthy sanitation practices, and generate awareness about sanitation and its linkage with public health. It has two sub-missions— SBM-Urban (SBM-U) and SBM Gramin (SBM-G).

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The SBM-U focuses on making urban India free from open defecation and achieving 100 percent scientific management of municipal solid waste in 4,041 statutory towns. 

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SBM Gramin

The SBM-G intends to bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation.

The progress on various fronts is being measured continually and updates are posted on the dashboard of the SBM website. So far, the advancement is impressive. Under SBM (Gramin), household toilet availability has improved by 22 percent to 64 percent since 2014; and over 2 lakh villages have self-declared to be open defecation free (ODF). Similarly, under SBM (urban), almost 32 lakh individual and community (and public) toilets have been built and 662 cities are ODF. Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Kerala have achieved 100 percent ODF status.

The Clean India campaign has, innovatively, induced a healthy competition among cities. The focus is on monitoring outcomes—the number of ODF cities and towns. A public survey places Indore as the cleanest city, and New Delhi (Lutyens Zone) among the top 10 clean cities in India. Gonda in UP is at the bottom of sanitation rankings of the survey of 434 cities. The study assessed cities and towns largely on improvement in processing of municipal solid waste and ending open defecation.

Infrastructure creation and citizen participation have created visibility on ground and begun showing promising results. Through several initiatives, the campaign has shaped a conducive environment for citizen participation. A social movement has steadily gathered impetus. Continually, the limelight is on stirring up attitudinal and behavioural change among society so as to make it a people’s movement.

Intensive multimedia communication campaigns through various media streams, ads on social media, introduction of apps, and billboards on streets remind public about the prime minister’s rallying cry. Celebrities have been roped in as brand ambassadors to motivate viewers and listeners on broadcast media to understand the importance of sanitation.

The mission stresses on toilets as key to women’s security. Ads on television and signs on village walls advise families to prevent their womenfolk from defecating in the open. To further the toilet construction programme, a new ad campaign on social media depicts women demanding their right to sanitation. The video ad, which highlights the plight of women, advocates a change in mindset among rural men folk about open defecation.

The campaign’s consistent thrust on cleanliness around historic monuments, public places and landmark cities–including heritage sights like Varanasi, Mathura, Agra and Lucknow—has changed public sensitivity about tourist places.

Watch Video for ” My Clean India”:

Toilet-building and sanitation are the two buzz words today. Clean India is not business as usual anymore—living with poor sanitation, that kills 50,000 people annually. Rather, it has stirred the collective conscience of people and has become everyone’s business—to throw filth out and bring health and happiness in.

*Author is an independent journalist and columnist with four decades of experience in all media forms – print, online, radio and television. He writes on developmental issues. 



Palnar – Cashless in Chhattisgarh, a state of bliss

Capture16We live in a connected world; internet has ensured that we are a smartphone away from all the news and commerce of the world.
The little village of Palnar in Dakshin Bastar Dantewada District, Chhattisgarh, also wanted to feel the power of the world in their palms. Situated in a remote area and acting as the nucleus of trading for 22 nearby villages, Palnar and its residents wanted to be connected to the world. While they were served by an all-weather road, what they wanted was to be on the Information Highway.

Since the coverage by BSNL and Airtel was patchy at best, and there was no scope to provide fibre optic network, the Administration decided to work on providing internet connectivity by creating a free Wi-Fi zone in the Palnar marketplace.

The biggest support for the Administration was the people of Palnar and the enthusiastic support of the Banks and the public representatives of the area. The free Wi-Fi zone also benefitted the Government oces like Public Health Centres (PHCs), Common Service Centres and the Gram Panchayat Bhawan. With the BSNL supported Wi-fi zone, villagers were suddenly exposed to the outside world through Social Media and other media apps.

Palnar marketplace in no time became the socio-economic hub of all the 22 villages in the area. The enthusiasm of the villagers gave a fillip to the ambition of the project. It was decided to push for Digital Financial Literacy (DFL) and aim at making Palnar ‘cashless’.


Notwithstanding the challenges, the task was attempted with zeal and commitment. Every Jan-dhan account holder was given a ‘Rupay’ card and Aadhar seeding of their accounts was done. The local SBI branch ensured that current accounts were opened for all shopkeepers. With regular meetings With regular meetings and innovative outdoor communication, the benefits of DFL were explained to the public. Innovation comes in many shapes, and here PoS machines were replaced by Eztap. Today, the shopkeepers of Palnar are adept at handling e-wallets and QR Codes making them the cynosure of all neighbouring villages.


Awareness & Action for Narmada Sanrakshan in Madhya Pradesh

Capture8It may be a marketing formula, but AIDA can – and does – work equally well in community participation. Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA) are the four pillars on which the Madhya Pradesh Jan Abhiyan Parishad (MPJAP) decided to include the society in Environment and Water Conservation, Education and Health imperatives.

Invoking the religious sentiments of the local populace, MPJAP planned a public awareness campaign to educate the community about the importance of conservation, education and healthy habits. The campaign moved around a 30-day journey from Amarkantak to Sondwa and back by a core team of 150-200 persons. The yatra coordinated with workshops and public meetings that brought into focus activities like afforestation, sanitation, soil and water conservation, pollution control measures and promotion of organic farming.


Since rivers are the genesis of all civilisation, the strategy was to focus on rivers in Madhya Pradesh. The Narmada is the largest river of MP. It has its origin in the holy place of Amarkantak in Anuppur District, at the height of approx. 3467 ft. from sea level. It flows from east to west and merges with the Arabian Sea near Surat in Gujarat. This, the fifth largest river of the Indian subcontinent is the lifeline of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.

Narmada in Sanskrit means ‘Giver of Pleasure’. To the Hindus, the Narmada is one of the seven holy rivers of India; the other six being Ganges, Yamuna, Godavari, Saraswati, Sindhu and Kaveri. According to Hindu mythology, River Ganges acquired the form of a black cow and immersed in the holy water of river Narmada, to cleanse herself. There are several places of religious signicance along the Narmada such as Amarkantak, Maheshwar and Omkareshwar.

Many people undertake a pilgrimage along the river, which is called the Narmada parikrama.
Jan Abhiyan Parishad identified 313 small rivers 10-25 km long for their resurrection and conservation. With the help of groups of people, activities like desilting, deepening of the river and major plantations on the riverbanks were undertaken.

This approach to rejuvenate the river and protect the Panch Mahabhoot of Air, Earth, Ether, Fire and Water will denitely lead to a better, greener earth.

Harisal – A Digital Heaven indeed!


Just over 600 kilometres from India’s financial capital, Mumbai, nestled in the Satpura range of mountains, amid a forested area exists the village of Harisal. Characterised by a lack of roads, power,mobile connectivity and minimal public infrastructure, the villages of this Melghat region of Maharashtra are inhabited by the Korku tribal community. Malnutrition, infant and maternal Malnutrition, infant and maternal mortality rates have plagued this community for years.

The signing of a Memorandum of Understanding by the Maharashtra Government with Microsoft Corporation and other partners in August 2015 led the way for various activities under a digitally oriented project that aimed at addressing several issues simultaneously.

Once the alliances were done, work followed at breakneck speed. New and innovative technologies such as TV White Space and Telemedicine helped to make internet facility available across the public offices and village areas at a nominal cost. The project has various components.  Air Jaldi Telemedicine is the use of Telecommunication and Information Technology to provide health care services from geographically remote locations. It helps to eliminate distance barriers and improve access to medical services that were often not available in rural areas and also helps to save lives in critical care and emergency situations. eHealth Centre (eHC) is a Hewlett-Packard Enterprise-CSIR initiative where information technology will be used to enable local healthcare services and telemedicine while collecting data pertaining to patients’ health and related issues. Citizens of the area now have access to quality medical advice, Telemedicine, with Hospitals of Amravati and Mumbai.

A Digital Village Harisal Committee with 20 qualified youth from the village itself, has been formed to seek suggestions, monitor work progress and capacity building. A Digital Village Workshop for all Engineering College Professors and Students has been organised. Existing Primary Health Centre has been upgraded with advanced eye care equipment and Ophthalmic Technician training from LV Eye Institute, Hyderabad.

Under the e-District Project, Digital Signature Certificate includes Birth and Death Certificates, Ration Cards, Land Records, Caste Certificate, Income Certificate, Non-Creamy Layer Certificate, Temporary Residence Certificate, Senior Citizen Certificate, Solvency Certificate, etc. Smart Ration Card has made the Public Distribution System more transparent and ecient. Agriculture Services are being provided through Mobile Apps such as mKrishi, Kisan Suvidha, AgMarknet for weather alert, dealers, market prices, agro advisories, plant protection, etc. Farmers are already trained for the apps and benefit from agriculture productivity point of view.



Indeed, Digital Village Harisal project implementation has made it possible for Citizens of
Harisal and Melghat region to avail good quality health care, school education, banking and agricultural services using digital technology deployment. Digital Village Harisal Project opens the doors for youth and citizens to avail the benefits of skill development, local business opportunities, employment, etc.
Harisal today is perhaps the country’s first digitally smart village.

Empowering Farmers as Entrepreneurs


Sugarcane is an important commercial multipurpose crop that provides useful by-products such as sugar, jaggery, ethanol, etc. Sugarcane farming is the Continue reading “Empowering Farmers as Entrepreneurs”

Digital AIIMS: A revolution for Healthcare

Capture5There can be no development without good governance, and it is the strong institutions that produce good governance. The Government of India is committed to promoting good governance and better service delivery to the citizens. The recently launched Digital India programme exemplifies this vision. In this direction, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), the premier Medical Institute of India, successfully
implemented e-Hospital Project and transformed into a fully digital public hospital.
AIIMS attracts nearly 40 Lakh patients per year from across the country.


The enormous patient load led to huge stress on the clinician’s work time and the long waiting time added to the woes of patients. Patients would stand in serpentine queues from 3.00 AM to get an appointment and spend nearly 9 hours in the hospital in chaotic conditions. There were difficulties in getting follow-up appointments too.

The Digital AIIMS initiative replaced the manual registration with electronic registration improved management practices by introducing Patient Registration Centre, 50 Registration Counters with e-Hospital Software, Waiting Halls to seat 5000 patients and creation of specialised cadres like the Nursing Information Specialists and Patient Care Coordinators. It placed OPD schedules of individual clinicians in public domain and simplified follow-up appointments by the creation of electronic patient records.


The Digital AIIMS Project garnered numerous laurels and letters of appreciation for its significance. The MoHFW recommended the project for replication in all 12 Central Government Hospitals. The Prime Minister commended the project in his
Independence Day address for pan-India replication.

Capture7It was awarded as the best performing project under Digital India by the Ministry of Information Technology. The team behind the project got the AIIMS Leadership Excellence Awards also.
The AIIMS Transformation Project represents India’s First Digital Revolution in Health Care. It is a remarkable success story. It has significantly contributed towards responsive public delivery systems by leveraging technology. The Digital AIIMS project has initiated a pan-India movement for the transformation of the large public hospitals into patient-friendly hospitals.


कृषि सुधार : राजग सरकार का अभूतपूर्व एजेंडा

rc*रमेश चंद

वर्ष 1970 से ही कृषि क्षेत्र में वार्षिक औसत विकास दर लगभग 2.8 प्रतिशत के आसपास स्थिर रही है। विशेष रूप से वर्ष 1991 के बाद गैर-कृषि क्षेत्र में तीव्र विकास दर के बल पर देश में आर्थिक सुधारों ने जोर पकड़ा है लेकिन कृषि क्षेत्र में यह विकास दर इसके बिल्‍कुल विपरीत है। इसके परिणामस्‍वरूप, 1990 के दशक के शुरुआत के बाद कृषि और गैर-कृषि क्षेत्रों की विकास दरों में विषमताएं तेजी से बढ़ी। इन विषमताओं के परिणामस्‍वरूप कृषि और गैर-कृषि क्षेत्रों के कामगारों की आय और किसानों तथा कृषि से भिन्‍न कामगारों की आय में भी विषमताएं बढ़ी। वर्ष 2011-12 के दौरान, कृषि क्षेत्र के एक कामगार की आय गैर-कृषि क्षेत्र के कामगार की आय का 5वां हिस्‍सा थी और एक किसान की आय गैर-कृषि क्षेत्र के कामगार की आय की तुलना में एक तिहाई ही थी। कृषिगत आय की धीमी विकास दर और बढ़ती विषमताएं देश में कृषि क्षेत्र से जुड़ी मौजूदा त्रासदी की प्रमुख स्रोत हैं, जो देश के लिए एक चुनौती बन गई है।
केंद्र की राजग सरकार ने इन दोनों चुनौतियों के समाधान के लिए कृषि क्षेत्र की विकास दर को बढ़ाने और किसानों के कल्‍याण को बढ़ाने के लिए दोहरी रणनीति अपनायी है। यह रणनीति उस बात से बिल्‍कुल भिन्‍न है, जब देश में केवल उत्‍पादन और उससे संबंधित लक्ष्‍यों का ही अनुसरण किया जाता था, किन्‍तु किसानों की आय के लिए कोई लक्ष्‍य अलग से निर्धारित नहीं किया जाता था। देश के योजनाबद्ध विकास के इतिहास में ऐसा पहली बार हुआ है, जब विकास के संदर्भ में लक्ष्‍य के रूप में निर्धारित किया गया है कि वर्ष 2022 तक किसानों की आय को दोगुना किया जाए। यह बात इस दृष्टि से भी महत्‍वपूर्ण है कि देश के लगभग आधे परिवार कृषि और इससे संबंधित क्रियाक्लापों से अपनी आजीविका प्राप्‍त करते हैं। समाज के इतने बड़े हिस्‍से की आय बढ़ाना और उनकी खुशहाली की दिशा में पहल करना प्रधानमंत्री के ‘’सबका साथ सबका विकास’’ के सपने को साकार करने की दिशा में उठाया गया एक काफी महत्‍वपूर्ण कदम है।
कृषि क्षेत्र में विकास से जुडी पहल और नीतिगत सुधार इस दोहरी रणनीति में शामिल हैI विकास सम्बन्धी पहलों में मृदा स्वास्थ्य कार्ड, प्रधानमंत्री कृषि सिंचाई योजना (पीएमकेएसवाई), (पीएमएफबीवाई), परंपरागत कृषि विकास योजना, कृषि के लिए अधिक संस्थागत ऋण सुविधा और दालों का बफर स्टॉक बनाना शामिल हैं।

मृदा स्वास्थ्य कार्ड
प्रधानमंत्री कृषि सिंचाई योजना





इन पहलों और उपायों का लक्ष्य कृषि विकास दर बढ़ाना, क्षमता में सुधार लाना, लागत घटाना, उत्पादन में लचीलापन लाना है। इन उपायों से निश्चित तौर पर किसानों की आय बढ़ाने में मदद मिलेगी, किन्तु इनसे अधिक आय नहीं बढ़ सकती। पिछले अनुभव के आधार पर यह अनुमान है कि इन उपायों से किसानों कि आय दोगुना करने में लगभग 25 वर्ष का समय लगेगा। इस प्रकार अगले 5-7 वर्षों में किसानों कि आय में महत्वपूर्ण वृद्धि के लक्ष्य तक पहुंचने के लिए अतिरिक्त उपाय करने होंगे। इनमें कृषि उत्पादन, विपणन, और अन्य पहलुओं से सम्बंधित नीतिगत वातावरण में आवश्यक परिवर्तन करना शामिल हैं। कृषि और गैर-कृषि क्षेत्रों के बीच बढ़ती विषमताओं और किसानों तथा कृषि क्षेत्र की मौजूदा स्थिति का मुख्य कारण ऐसे सुधारों का सर्वथा अभाव होना है।
1990 के दशक के दौरान जब अपने देश ने अर्थव्यवस्था के लिए गैर कृषि क्षेत्र में महत्वपूर्ण लाभों को महसूस किया था तब कई विशेषज्ञों ने गैर कृषि क्षेत्र में सुधारों के महत्व को समझ कर इसपर जोर दिया था। तदनुसार, कृषि विपणन और आतंरिक व्यापार को उदार बनाने के उद्देश्य से सन 2000 की शुरुआत में कुछ कदम उठाये गए थे। विभिन्न राज्यों में पुराने कृषि उत्पाद विपणन नियमन अधिनियम के स्थान पर एक मसौदा ए पी एम सी अधिनियम (2003) का प्रस्ताव किया गया था। दूध प्रसंस्करण उद्योग में निवेश आकर्षित करने के उद्देश्य से दूध और दूध उत्पाद आदेश में सुधार किया गया था। वर्ष 2002 में एक अन्य महत्ववपूर्ण सुधार के रूप में आवश्यक वस्तु अधिनियम के तहत कृषिगत वस्तुओं की खरीद, आवाजाही और भण्डारण निषेध (लाइसेंस और परमिट) को हटा दिया गया था। वर्ष 2006 और 2007 के दौरान आवश्यक वस्तु अधिनियम में किये गए बदलावों को पूरी तरह वापस ले लिया गया था। कुछ राज्यों में जैसे-तैसे मॉडल ए पी एम सी अधिनियम को अंशतः और हल्के रूप में लागू किया गया था। देश के लगभग दो-तिहाई राज्यों ने अधिनियम में बदलाव तो किये किन्तु केवल एक-तिहाई राज्यों ने ही इसे अधिसूचित किया। यहाँ तक कि अधिसूचित प्रावधानों में कृषि का केवल छोटा हिस्सा शामिल किया गया था।

विकास की गति और किसानों की आय बढ़ाने में नीति सुधारों के महत्व को महसूस करते हुए और उपभोक्ताओं के हितों को पूरा करने के लिए केन्द्र सरकार ने सबसे पहले ई-नाम (राष्ट्रीय कृषि बाजार के लिए इलेक्ट्रोनिक व्यापार मंच) पहल की शुरूआत की।


इसके बाद सरकार कृषि विपणन और कुछ अन्य क्षेत्रों में अनेक सुधार लेकर आई। एक केन्द्रीय क्षेत्र योजना के रूप में 14 अप्रैल 2015 को ई-नाम की शुरूआत की गयी थी। यह योजना कृषि उत्पादों की इलक्ट्रोनिक नीलामी के लिए अपेक्षित बुनियादी ढांचे और प्रणाली की स्थापना के लिए ई-नाम के अधीन लायी गयी प्रत्येक मंडी के लिए 75 लाख रूपये की वित्तीय सहायता उपलब्ध कराती है। यह नाम पोर्टल का उपयोग करते हुए पैन इंडिया एकीकृत कृषि बाजार का सृजन करने के लिए मौजूदा एपीएमसी मंडियों के साथ नेटवर्क स्थापित करेगा और इससे राज्य और देश के किसी भी हिस्से में रहने वाला व्यापारी ऑन-लाइन मंच का उपयोग करके कृषि जिन्सों की बोली लगानी की प्रक्रिया में भाग ले सकेगा। इससे कृषि बाजार के स्थानिक एकीकरण, उच्च प्रतिस्पर्धा नीलामी प्रक्रिया में पारदर्शिता, किसानों के लिए राष्ट्रव्यापी बाजार में पहुंच, किसानों के उत्पाद का गुणवत्ता के अनुसार मूल्य मिलना, ऑन लाइन भुगतान तथा बेहतर उत्पाद की उपलब्धता तथा उपभोक्ताओं के लिए उचित मूल्य जैसे विविध लाभ मिलेंगे। यह कृषि बाजारों को आधुनिक बनायेगा और कृषि विपणन के पूरे स्वरूप को बदल देगा।


इसके बाद नीति आयोग द्वारा तीन क्षेत्रों यानि कृषि बाजार, भूमि लीज और फार्मों तथा निजी भूमियों पर वानिकी में किसानों के अनुकूल कृषि सुधारों के लिए एक एजेंडा लाया गया। हमारे कृषि बाजार समय के अनुसार विकसित नहीं हुए हैं और उन्हें कानूनी तथा नियामक प्रतिबंध के कारण कमजोर बुनियादी ढांचा और प्रतिस्पर्धा का सामना करना पडा। कृषि बाजार में सुधारों के लिए इन प्रावधानों की जरूरत है-(1) निजी मंडियों की स्थापना (2) किसानों से सीधे ही खरीददारी (3) ठेके पर खेती (4) ई-ट्रेडिंग (5) एक बार ही लेवी लगाना (6) किसानों द्वारा उपभोक्ताओं को सीधे बिक्री करना (7) एकल कारोबारी लाइसेंस (8) फलों और सब्जियों का विशेष उपचार (9) बाजार में कर/शुल्क/लेवी का युक्तिकरण। इन सुधारों का उद्देश्य कृषि विपणन में आधुनिक पूंजी को आकर्षित करना, किसानों को अपने उत्पाद बेचने के लिए अन्य विकल्प उपलब्ध कराना, प्रतिस्पर्धा और वैल्यू चेन को बढ़ावा देना, एकीकृत आपूर्ति चेन के माध्यम से बिचौलियों की संख्या और उनका लाभ कम करना तथा बाजार परिचालनों को गति प्रदान करना है। इन सभी परिवर्तनों से किसानों को उनके उत्पाद के अधिक तथा उपभोक्ताओं को उचित मूल्य प्राप्त होंगे। कुछ राज्यों ने कुछ सुधारों को लागू किया है और जिनके उत्पादकों के साथ-साथ उपभोक्ताओं के लिए भी महत्वपूर्ण लाभ दिखाई देने लगे हैं। अनुभव ने यह दर्शाया है कि विभिन्न राज्यों में हरित क्रांति का विस्तार और सफलता फसलों के लाभकारी और सुनिश्चित मूल्यों के कारण हुआ। ई-नाम और बाजार सुधारों से किसान अपने उत्पाद के अधिक मूल्य प्राप्त करने में समर्थ होंगे जिससे कृषि बदलाव में जादुई प्रभाव दिखाई देगा।
सुधारों का दूसरा क्षेत्र कृषि भूमि की लीजिंग की उदारीकरण से संबंधित है।

उदारीकृत भूमि लीज बाजार से परिचालित जोतों का समेकन, परती भूमि, संस्थागत क्रेडिट तक पहुंच और कृषि कार्य करने में असमर्थ या अनिच्छुक किसानों की भूमि का उत्पादक उपयोग जैसी भारतीय कृषि की अनेक समस्याओं का समाधान प्रस्तुत करता है। पारदर्शी भूमि लीजिंग, कानून, संभावित पट्टेदार या किरायेदार, फसल हिस्सेदार को भूमि के मालिक के साथ लिखित अनुबंध करने की अनुमति देता है जो एक जोरदार सुधार है। आदर्श कानून के तहत भूमि मालिक भी पट्टेदार को बिना किसी डर के अपनी भूमि ठेके पर देने में समर्थ होगा। उदारीकृत और सुरक्षित भूमि लीज बाजार का सबसे बडा लाभ यह होगा कि इससे खेती को अनाकर्षक या अव्यवहार्य मानने वाले किसानों को कृषि कार्य से अलग करने के कार्य को सरल बनायेगा तथा उन किसानों को आर्थिक रूप से मजबूत बनायेगा जो कृषि कार्य में लगे रहना चाहते हैं और परिचालित जोतों की मात्रा बढ़ाना चाहते हैं। अन्य बातों के साथ इससे भूमि जोत के परिचालन का समेकन होगा जो जोतों का आकार घटने और उसके टुकडें होने के कारण आवश्यक हो गया है।
नीति आयोग ने “माडल लैंड लीजिंग अधिनियम” तैयार किये हैं जिन्हें विविध राज्य मौजूदा भूमि लीज प्रावधानों को सुधार करने में उपयोग कर सकते हैं। मौजूदा नियमों का भूमि कार्यकाल प्रणालियों और पहाडी राज्यों की विशेष परिस्थितियों को ध्यान में रखते हुए भी उपयोग किया जा सकता है। नीति आयोग राज्यों को अपने भूमि लीजिंग कानूनों को तैयार करने और भूमि लीजिंग के लाभों के बारे में विभिन्न हितधारकों में जागरूकता पैदा करने में मदद कर रहा है।
सुधार के लिए चुना गया तीसरा क्षेत्र निजी भूमि पर वानिकी या वृक्षारोपण से संबंधित है। निजी भूमि पर वानिकी, पेडों के गिरने या पेड उत्पादों के विपणन के लिए मार्गस्थ अनुमति पर प्रतिबिंदों द्वारा विनियंत्रित है। इन विनियमों ने निजी भूमियों पर पेड उगाने पर अधिक प्रतिबंध और निरुत्साह को बढ़ावा दिया है। इन विनियमों में छूट देने तथा निजी भूमियों पर पेड उगाने में मदद करने के लिए पर्यावरण, वन और जलवायु परिवर्तन मंत्रालय भारत सरकार ने राज्यों को एडवाइजरी परिपत्रित की है। भारत अपनी लकड़ी की मांग का अधिकांश हिस्सा निर्यात से पूरा करता है और देश में वृक्ष उत्पादों की बिक्री से किसानों की आय बढ़ाने की बहुत अधिक संभावना है। इन सुधारों में इमारती लकड़ी की आपूर्ति बढ़ाने के लिए इमारती लकड़ी और अन्य लकड़ी पर आधारित उद्योग की स्थापना का भी प्रस्ताव करते हैं।
केन्द्र सरकार ई-नाम, के लिए वित्तीय प्रोत्साहन उपलब्ध करा रही हैं, कृषि क्षेत्र में सुधारों के लिए एजेंडे का प्रस्ताव कर रही है और राज्यों को विभिन्न सुधार लागू करने के लिए मना रही है लेकिन इनका कार्यान्वयन राज्यों पर निर्भर करता है ये सुधार कृषि क्षेत्र में संभावनाओं का विस्तार करने किसानों की आय में महत्वपूर्ण बढ़ोत्तरी करने और कृषि की कायाकल्प करने में बड़ी भूमिका निभायेंगे।

*लेखक रमेश चंद नीति आयोग के सदस्य हैं। इस लेख में व्यक्त विचार लेखक के व्यक्तिगत हैं।


Children Change Generational Mindsets!

Source: e-Book on New Beginning released by the Prime Minister on Civil Services Day 2017

Bihaniya, which means clean morning in the local language. The initiative included going for morning visits to villages every Wednesday and Saturday to educate and motivate people on the bene­fits of using personal toilets.

Girl students from high and higher secondary schools were encouraged to form Kishori Baalika Sammelans. These young girls were educated regarding personal and menstrual hygiene in these sammelans. 180 of these sammelans were held to educate and explain the benefi­ts of IHHLs and other aspects of women hygiene.

Mungeli is a newly formed District in Chhattisgarh with three blocks Lormi, Mungeli and Pathariya. It has 350 gram panchayats, 711 villages and a population of 701707. 25 % of the population is Scheduled Caste followed by 10% Scheduled Tribe. When Government of India launched its much proclaimed Swachh Bharat Mission, Mungeli District had a whopping 98,000 households lacking Indian House Hold Latrines (IHHL) along with 5,000 newly added families which totalled to a fi­gure of approximately 103,000 IHHL which the District needed to construct and repair.

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The State Administration launched a few innovative and radical schemes to create awareness and instil a sense of hygiene so that the residents feel encouraged to construct IHHLs. Officials like the collector, SDM, CEO Zila Panchayat and grassroots Officials such as Patwaris, Engineers or Gram Sachivs all came together under an initiative called ‘Sugghar”.

A Red Brigade was formed with a group of 15-20 adolescent school girls who voluntarily joined the movement. These motivated and enthusiastic girls took upon their shoulders the responsibility of educating the females, the children and the elderly regarding their contribution to the mission. This group rose every morning with a renewed vigour and covered each nook and corner of their locality talking to each and every person. Whistles were blown by the Red Brigade whenever they witnessed people breaking the rules and refusing to use toilets.

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Also, 200 Swacchta Preraks or Cleanliness Motivators were trained intensively to carry out Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). These swachhta preraks urged village inhabitants to quit defecating in open, explaining to them the health hazards of open defecation. Other volunteers were also involved through formation of Bihaniya Dals or Morning Groups who carried out an extensive follow up on the usage of newly constructed toilets and changing the toilet habits of people.

Last but not the least, the Vaanar Sena of young kids performed the amusing activity of snatching the bowls or lotas of the people defecating in the open. The strategy worked magnifi­cently as individuals gradually started changing their attitude. The display of the names of the defaulters on the walls of Gram Panchayat and the imposition of fi­nes further discouraged open defecation.

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Most important of all, 106 engineers of all the work departments were trained intensively with special focus on toilet construction in local black soil regions, water logged areas and areas with high water tables.

The efforts bore stupendous success. Construction of approximately 1,07,000 IHHL has been carried out over a period of 9 months which includes baseline survey ­figure, toilets for newly added families and reconstruction of defunct toilets.


Who says hard-sell doesn’t sell?



Part-time Worker to Fashion Designer


This is a story that might find resonance across the length and breadth of India. Kiran Rayakvar is today, a self-made woman, thanks to her passion and the support provided by the Stand-Up India Scheme. Kiran’s family was not earning enough to make both ends meet. As she was educated and qualified, she was supplementing the family income by teaching young children in the neighborhood. But, deep in her heart, there was a dream to do something of her own.

Kiran was an M.A/M.S.W and diploma holder in fashion designing. Her wish was to open her boutique, but the lack of resources and support never allowed her to realise this dream.


Stand-Up India not only made her 20-year-old dream come true, but has brought a happy and remarkable change in the life of twenty other aspiring females. Kiran heard of the Stand-Up India Scheme from TV. She initiated and took her first move by sending an online application to the nearby bank for a loan under the Scheme. She was pleasantly surprised to get it within ten days.

Kiran is today, running a complete garment unit at Rajpura, Burhanpur, situated at a distance of half a km from her home. She and her team are working on school uniforms and costume designs. She has a team of 20 women who are working for her. She thinks of them as her extended family.

Today, Kiran’s husband has left his job and supporting her team in this flourishing garment business. Wearing a shy smile, Kiran says that Stand-Up India not only changed her life but has brought happiness to 20 more families.



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